Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor

Jessica E S Bohonowych, Bin Zhao, Alicia Timme-Laragy, Dawoon Jung, Richard T. Di Giulio, Michael S. Denison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-290
Number of pages13
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume102
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors
Ink
Newspapers
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Ligands
Printing
Ethanol
Chemical activation
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Aquatic organisms
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aquatic Organisms
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Recycling
Zebrafish
Luciferases
Complex Mixtures
Reporter Genes
Gene expression

Keywords

  • 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
  • Ah receptor
  • Newspaper
  • Printing ink

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Bohonowych, J. E. S., Zhao, B., Timme-Laragy, A., Jung, D., Di Giulio, R. T., & Denison, M. S. (2008). Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor. Toxicological Sciences, 102(2), 278-290. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfn011

Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor. / Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

In: Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 2, 04.2008, p. 278-290.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bohonowych, JES, Zhao, B, Timme-Laragy, A, Jung, D, Di Giulio, RT & Denison, MS 2008, 'Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor', Toxicological Sciences, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 278-290. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfn011
Bohonowych JES, Zhao B, Timme-Laragy A, Jung D, Di Giulio RT, Denison MS. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor. Toxicological Sciences. 2008 Apr;102(2):278-290. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfn011
Bohonowych, Jessica E S ; Zhao, Bin ; Timme-Laragy, Alicia ; Jung, Dawoon ; Di Giulio, Richard T. ; Denison, Michael S. / Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the Ah receptor. In: Toxicological Sciences. 2008 ; Vol. 102, No. 2. pp. 278-290.
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