New insights on the morphology of adult mouse penis

Esequiel Rodriguez, Dana A. Weiss, Jennifer H Yang, Julia Menshenina, Max Ferretti, Tristan J. Cunha, Dale Barcellos, Lok Yun Chan, Gail Risbridger, Gerald R. Cunha, Laurence S. Baskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


The adult mouse penis represents the end point of masculine sex differentiation of the embryonic genital tubercle and contains bone, cartilage, the urethra, erectile bodies, several types of epithelium, and many individual cell types arrayed into specific anatomical structures. Using contemporary high-resolution imaging techniques, we sought to provide new insights to the current description of adult mouse penile morphology to enable understanding of penile abnormalities, including hypospadias. Examination of serial transverse and longitudinal sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction provided a new appreciation of the individual structures in the adult mouse penis and their 3D interrelationships. In so doing, we discovered novel paired erectile bodies, the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP), and more accurately described the urethral meatus. These morphological observations were quantified by morphometric analysis and now provide accurate morphological end points of sex differentiation of mouse penis that will be the foundation of future studies to identify normal and abnormal penile development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1216-1221
Number of pages6
JournalBiology of Reproduction
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011


  • Developmental biology
  • Differentiation
  • External genitalia
  • Male reproductive tract
  • Os penis
  • Penile urethra
  • Penis
  • Prepuce
  • Sex differentiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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