Neurobehavioral evaluation of rhesus monkey infants fed cow's milk formula, soy formula, or soy formula with added manganese

Mari S. Golub, Casey E. Hogrefe, Stacey L. Germann, Trinh T. Tran, John L. Beard, Francis M. Crinella, Bo Lonnerdal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


The possible neurobehavioral effects of excess manganese in soy formula were studied. Male rhesus monkeys (n = 8/group) were fed a commercial cow's milk based formula (Control), a commercial soy protein based formula (Soy), or the soy formula with added manganese (Soy + Mn) from birth to 4 months of age. Soy formulas naturally have higher manganese (Mn) content than cow's milk formulas. Monkeys received behavioral evaluations, growth measurements, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling from birth to 18 months of age. Soy and Soy + Mn groups engaged in less play behavior and more affiliative clinging in social dyadic interactions. These groups also had shorter wake cycles and shorter periods of daytime inactivity than controls. An impulsivity test was sensitive to the Soy group diet. The Soy + Mn group also had a blunted response to the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Groups did not differ significantly in CSF dopamine and serotonin metabolite concentrations, but these concentrations were correlated with several tasks affected by experimental formula. This experiment suggests that components of soy formula, including Mn, may influence brain development as reflected in behavioral measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)615-627
Number of pages13
JournalNeurotoxicology and Teratology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • Activity
  • Apomorphine
  • Dopamine
  • Dyadic interaction
  • Impulsivity
  • Manganese
  • Monkeys
  • Soy formula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Toxicology


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