Neonatal vitamin D status in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHARGE case–control study

Rebecca Jean Schmidt, Qiaojuan Niu, Darryl W. Eyles, Robin L Hansen, Ana-Maria Iosif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vitamin D appears essential for normal neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined neonatal vitamin D in relation to the child's later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Children aged 24–60 months enrolled in the population-based CHARGE case–control study were evaluated clinically for ASD (n = 357), DD (n = 134), or typical development (TD, n = 234) at the MIND Institute (Sacramento, CA) using standardized assessments. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in archived dried blood spots collected for the California Department of Public Health's Newborn Screening Program. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate ORs as measures of the associations between 25 nmol/L change in 25(OH)D and ASD and DD. Associations between 25(OH)D and scores on Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were assessed using robust linear regression. Effect modification was examined using stratified models and interaction product terms. Unadjusted mean (SD) 25(OH)D was lower for DD (73.2 [37.6]) than for TD (82.7 [39.3]) and ASD (80.1 [37.4]). After adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index and education, a 25 nmol/L increase in total 25(OH)D was not associated with ASD (OR = 0.97; CI: 0.87–1.08) or DD (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.78–1.06). Neonatal 25(OH)D was associated with significantly reduced ASD only in females (adjusted OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55–0.99, P interaction = 0.03), and significantly reduced DD only in non-Hispanic white children (adjusted OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63–0.98, P interaction = 0.11 for Hispanic, P interaction = 0.31 for other), driven by DD children with trisomy 21. This study provides evidence that neonatal vitamin D could be associated with ASD in females and with DD in non-Hispanic white children. Autism Res 2019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAutism Research
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Vitamin D
Delayed Diagnosis
Psychological Adaptation
Autistic Disorder
Down Syndrome
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Hispanic Americans
Isotopes
Cognition
Linear Models
Mass Spectrometry
Body Mass Index
Public Health
Logistic Models
Mothers
Learning
Newborn Infant
Education
Population

Keywords

  • autism spectrum disorder
  • child development disorders
  • Down syndrome
  • infant
  • newborn
  • prevention
  • vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

@article{9523f1f023a849fcacf080addd7e87fe,
title = "Neonatal vitamin D status in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHARGE case–control study",
abstract = "Vitamin D appears essential for normal neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined neonatal vitamin D in relation to the child's later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Children aged 24–60 months enrolled in the population-based CHARGE case–control study were evaluated clinically for ASD (n = 357), DD (n = 134), or typical development (TD, n = 234) at the MIND Institute (Sacramento, CA) using standardized assessments. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in archived dried blood spots collected for the California Department of Public Health's Newborn Screening Program. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate ORs as measures of the associations between 25 nmol/L change in 25(OH)D and ASD and DD. Associations between 25(OH)D and scores on Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were assessed using robust linear regression. Effect modification was examined using stratified models and interaction product terms. Unadjusted mean (SD) 25(OH)D was lower for DD (73.2 [37.6]) than for TD (82.7 [39.3]) and ASD (80.1 [37.4]). After adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index and education, a 25 nmol/L increase in total 25(OH)D was not associated with ASD (OR = 0.97; CI: 0.87–1.08) or DD (OR = 0.91; 95{\%} CI: 0.78–1.06). Neonatal 25(OH)D was associated with significantly reduced ASD only in females (adjusted OR = 0.74; 95{\%} CI: 0.55–0.99, P interaction = 0.03), and significantly reduced DD only in non-Hispanic white children (adjusted OR = 0.79; 95{\%} CI: 0.63–0.98, P interaction = 0.11 for Hispanic, P interaction = 0.31 for other), driven by DD children with trisomy 21. This study provides evidence that neonatal vitamin D could be associated with ASD in females and with DD in non-Hispanic white children. Autism Res 2019.",
keywords = "autism spectrum disorder, child development disorders, Down syndrome, infant, newborn, prevention, vitamin D",
author = "Schmidt, {Rebecca Jean} and Qiaojuan Niu and Eyles, {Darryl W.} and Hansen, {Robin L} and Ana-Maria Iosif",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/aur.2118",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Autism Research",
issn = "1939-3806",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Neonatal vitamin D status in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHARGE case–control study

AU - Schmidt, Rebecca Jean

AU - Niu, Qiaojuan

AU - Eyles, Darryl W.

AU - Hansen, Robin L

AU - Iosif, Ana-Maria

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Vitamin D appears essential for normal neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined neonatal vitamin D in relation to the child's later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Children aged 24–60 months enrolled in the population-based CHARGE case–control study were evaluated clinically for ASD (n = 357), DD (n = 134), or typical development (TD, n = 234) at the MIND Institute (Sacramento, CA) using standardized assessments. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in archived dried blood spots collected for the California Department of Public Health's Newborn Screening Program. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate ORs as measures of the associations between 25 nmol/L change in 25(OH)D and ASD and DD. Associations between 25(OH)D and scores on Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were assessed using robust linear regression. Effect modification was examined using stratified models and interaction product terms. Unadjusted mean (SD) 25(OH)D was lower for DD (73.2 [37.6]) than for TD (82.7 [39.3]) and ASD (80.1 [37.4]). After adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index and education, a 25 nmol/L increase in total 25(OH)D was not associated with ASD (OR = 0.97; CI: 0.87–1.08) or DD (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.78–1.06). Neonatal 25(OH)D was associated with significantly reduced ASD only in females (adjusted OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55–0.99, P interaction = 0.03), and significantly reduced DD only in non-Hispanic white children (adjusted OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63–0.98, P interaction = 0.11 for Hispanic, P interaction = 0.31 for other), driven by DD children with trisomy 21. This study provides evidence that neonatal vitamin D could be associated with ASD in females and with DD in non-Hispanic white children. Autism Res 2019.

AB - Vitamin D appears essential for normal neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined neonatal vitamin D in relation to the child's later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Children aged 24–60 months enrolled in the population-based CHARGE case–control study were evaluated clinically for ASD (n = 357), DD (n = 134), or typical development (TD, n = 234) at the MIND Institute (Sacramento, CA) using standardized assessments. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in archived dried blood spots collected for the California Department of Public Health's Newborn Screening Program. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate ORs as measures of the associations between 25 nmol/L change in 25(OH)D and ASD and DD. Associations between 25(OH)D and scores on Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were assessed using robust linear regression. Effect modification was examined using stratified models and interaction product terms. Unadjusted mean (SD) 25(OH)D was lower for DD (73.2 [37.6]) than for TD (82.7 [39.3]) and ASD (80.1 [37.4]). After adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index and education, a 25 nmol/L increase in total 25(OH)D was not associated with ASD (OR = 0.97; CI: 0.87–1.08) or DD (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.78–1.06). Neonatal 25(OH)D was associated with significantly reduced ASD only in females (adjusted OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55–0.99, P interaction = 0.03), and significantly reduced DD only in non-Hispanic white children (adjusted OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63–0.98, P interaction = 0.11 for Hispanic, P interaction = 0.31 for other), driven by DD children with trisomy 21. This study provides evidence that neonatal vitamin D could be associated with ASD in females and with DD in non-Hispanic white children. Autism Res 2019.

KW - autism spectrum disorder

KW - child development disorders

KW - Down syndrome

KW - infant

KW - newborn

KW - prevention

KW - vitamin D

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066031118&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066031118&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/aur.2118

DO - 10.1002/aur.2118

M3 - Article

C2 - 31094097

AN - SCOPUS:85066031118

JO - Autism Research

JF - Autism Research

SN - 1939-3806

ER -