Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Trajectories in a Diverse Longitudinal Cohort

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5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Although individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with poor outcomes, less is known regarding how the social context might affect cognitive outcomes. We examined the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) on baseline cognitive function and trajectories of decline. Methods: The sample (N = 480) came from a longitudinal cohort recruited to study cognitive function. Mixed effects models examined the influence of NSES on baseline and rate of change in executive function, semantic memory, and episodic memory. Results: NSES was positively associated with semantic memory scores at baseline, but not with executive function or episodic memory in adjusted models, nor was it associated with cognitive change in longitudinal analyses. In exploratory analyses, for individuals with dementia, those with higher NSES declined faster in executive function and semantic memory than did those with lower NSES. Conclusions: Results suggest that NSES has limited effects independent of personal characteristics; however, findings showed a complex relation of NSES and decline, with NSES effects observed only for individuals with dementia. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive reserve. Clinical Implications: Clinical assessments of individuals who present with cognitive impairment might benefit from an understanding of the neighborhood context from which patients come.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Gerontologist
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 5 2017

Fingerprint

Social Class
social status
Executive Function
Semantics
Episodic Memory
semantics
dementia
Cognition
Dementia
Cognitive Reserve

Keywords

  • Aging
  • cognitive decline
  • dementia
  • education
  • income

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

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abstract = "Objectives: Although individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with poor outcomes, less is known regarding how the social context might affect cognitive outcomes. We examined the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) on baseline cognitive function and trajectories of decline. Methods: The sample (N = 480) came from a longitudinal cohort recruited to study cognitive function. Mixed effects models examined the influence of NSES on baseline and rate of change in executive function, semantic memory, and episodic memory. Results: NSES was positively associated with semantic memory scores at baseline, but not with executive function or episodic memory in adjusted models, nor was it associated with cognitive change in longitudinal analyses. In exploratory analyses, for individuals with dementia, those with higher NSES declined faster in executive function and semantic memory than did those with lower NSES. Conclusions: Results suggest that NSES has limited effects independent of personal characteristics; however, findings showed a complex relation of NSES and decline, with NSES effects observed only for individuals with dementia. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive reserve. Clinical Implications: Clinical assessments of individuals who present with cognitive impairment might benefit from an understanding of the neighborhood context from which patients come.",
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