We previously showed that two thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms - TRα1 and TRβ1 - differentially regulate thyroid hormone (triiodothyroxine, T3)-stimulated adipogenesis in vivo. This study aims to understand the role of the nuclear receptor corepressor, NCoR1, in TR isoform-dependent adipogenesis. We found that T3-stimulated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells was accompanied by progressive loss of NCoR1 protein levels. In 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing a mutated TRα1, PV (L1-α1PV cells), the T3-stimulated adipogenesis was more strongly inhibited than that in 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing an identical mutation in TRβ1 (L1-β1PV cells). The stronger inhibition of adipogenesis in L1-α1PV cells was associated with a higher NCoR1 protein level. These results indicate that the degree of loss of NCoR1 correlates with the extent of adipogenesis. siRNA knockdown of NCoR1 promoted adipogenesis of control 3T3-L1 cells and reversed the inhibited adipogenesis of L1-α1PV and L1-β1PV cells, indicating that NCoR1 plays an essential role in TR isoform-dependent adipogenesis. An ubiquitin ligase, mSiah2, that targets NCoR1 for proteasome degradation was upregulated on day 1 before the onset of progressive loss of NCoR1. NCoR1 was found to associate with mSiah2 and with TR, TRα1PV, or TRβ1PV, but a stronger interaction of NCoR1 with TRα1PV than with TRβ1PV was detected. Furthermore, TRα1PV-NCoR1 complex was more avidly recruited than TRβ1PV-NCoR1 to the promoter of the C/ebpα gene, leading to more inhibition in its expression. These results indicate that differential interaction of NCoR1 with TR isoforms accounted for the TR isoform-dependent regulation of adipogenesis and that aberrant interaction of NCoR1 with TR could underlie the pathogenesis of lipid disorders in hypothyroidism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology