Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

Brandon W. Too, Sarah Cicai, Kali R. Hockett, Elizabeth Applegate, Brian A Davis, Gretchen A. Casazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI) effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins) compared to a commercial product (sport chews).Methods: Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD) runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only) separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO 2max) treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with a Fisher's post hoc analysis to determine significant differences.Results: VO 2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L -1) during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively), and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively) during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively). Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6 ± 2.6, 20.7 ± 2.5, 21.6 ± 2.7 min for raisin, chews and water respectively). GI disturbance was mild for all treatments.Conclusion: Raisins and chews promoted higher carbohydrate oxidation and improved running performance compared to water only. Running performance was similar between the raisins and chews, with no significant GI differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number27
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2012

Fingerprint

raisins
Vitis
Running
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
Water
water
exercise
blood serum
creatine kinase
Creatine Kinase
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
lactates
free fatty acids
glycerol
heart rate
Lactic Acid
insulin
Heart Rate
Serum

Keywords

  • Blood glucose
  • Creatine kinase
  • Free fatty acid
  • Insulin
  • Respiratory exchange ratio
  • Time trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Food Science

Cite this

Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance. / Too, Brandon W.; Cicai, Sarah; Hockett, Kali R.; Applegate, Elizabeth; Davis, Brian A; Casazza, Gretchen A.

In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 9, 27, 15.06.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Too, Brandon W. ; Cicai, Sarah ; Hockett, Kali R. ; Applegate, Elizabeth ; Davis, Brian A ; Casazza, Gretchen A. / Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance. In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 9.
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abstract = "Background: We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI) effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins) compared to a commercial product (sport chews).Methods: Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD) runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only) separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75{\%}VO 2max) treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with a Fisher's post hoc analysis to determine significant differences.Results: VO 2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L -1) during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively), and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and {\%} of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7{\%} for chews, raisins and water respectively) during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively). Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6 ± 2.6, 20.7 ± 2.5, 21.6 ± 2.7 min for raisin, chews and water respectively). GI disturbance was mild for all treatments.Conclusion: Raisins and chews promoted higher carbohydrate oxidation and improved running performance compared to water only. Running performance was similar between the raisins and chews, with no significant GI differences.",
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AU - Cicai, Sarah

AU - Hockett, Kali R.

AU - Applegate, Elizabeth

AU - Davis, Brian A

AU - Casazza, Gretchen A.

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N2 - Background: We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI) effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins) compared to a commercial product (sport chews).Methods: Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD) runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only) separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO 2max) treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with a Fisher's post hoc analysis to determine significant differences.Results: VO 2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L -1) during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively), and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively) during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively). Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6 ± 2.6, 20.7 ± 2.5, 21.6 ± 2.7 min for raisin, chews and water respectively). GI disturbance was mild for all treatments.Conclusion: Raisins and chews promoted higher carbohydrate oxidation and improved running performance compared to water only. Running performance was similar between the raisins and chews, with no significant GI differences.

AB - Background: We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI) effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins) compared to a commercial product (sport chews).Methods: Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD) runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only) separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO 2max) treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with a Fisher's post hoc analysis to determine significant differences.Results: VO 2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L -1) during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively), and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively) during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml -1 for chews, raisins and water respectively). Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6 ± 2.6, 20.7 ± 2.5, 21.6 ± 2.7 min for raisin, chews and water respectively). GI disturbance was mild for all treatments.Conclusion: Raisins and chews promoted higher carbohydrate oxidation and improved running performance compared to water only. Running performance was similar between the raisins and chews, with no significant GI differences.

KW - Blood glucose

KW - Creatine kinase

KW - Free fatty acid

KW - Insulin

KW - Respiratory exchange ratio

KW - Time trial

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