Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in industrialized nations. Type 2 diabetes is a CVD risk factor that confers risk similar to a previous myocardial infarction in an individual who does not have diabetes. In addition, the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is diabetes. Together, diabetes and hypertension account for more than two-thirds of CVD risk, and other risk factors such as dyslipidemia contribute to the remainder of CVD risk. CKD, particularly with presence of significant albuminuria, should be considered an additional cardiovascular risk factor. There is no consensus on how to assess and stratify risk for patients with kidney disease across subspecialties that commonly treat such patients. This paper summarizes the results of a consensus conference utilizing a patient case to discuss the integrated management of hypertension, kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and heart failure across disciplines.
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