Nanoporous Gold Biointerfaces: Modifying Nanostructure to Control Neural Cell Coverage and Enhance Electrophysiological Recording Performance

Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nanoporous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model. Utilizing microfabricated libraries that display varying feature sizes of np-Au, it is demonstrated that np-Au influences neural cell coverage through modulating focal adhesion formation in a feature size-dependent manner. The results here show that surfaces with small (≈30 nm) features control astrocyte spreading through inhibition of focal adhesion formation, while surfaces with large (≈170 nm and greater) features control astrocyte spreading through other mechanotransduction mechanisms. This cellular response combined with lower electrical impedance of np-Au electrodes significantly enhances the fidelity and stability of electrophysiological recordings from cortical neuron-glia co-cultures relative to smooth gold electrodes. Finally, by leveraging the effect of nanostructure on neuronal versus glial cell attachment, the use of laser-based nanostructure modulation is demonstrated for selectively patterning neurons with micrometer spatial resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1604631
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 19 2017

Keywords

  • cell–material interactions
  • electrophysiology
  • nanoporous gold
  • nanostructure libraries
  • neural interfaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry

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