Musculoskeletal Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses: 35 cases (1999-2009)

Nora Nogradi, Sharon Spier, Balazs Toth, Mary E Vaughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective-To describe the clinical course and outcome in horses in which Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections were associated with musculoskeletal disease and lameness. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-35 horses. Procedures-Clinical and clinicopathologic data were collected from horses diagnosed with lameness associated with C pseudotuberculosis infection between 1999 and 2009. Results-32 (91.4%) horses had grade 4/5 lameness. Three (8.6%) horses had grade 5/5 lameness. Abscesses were diagnosed by clinical or ultrasonographic examination. Abscesses were located in the axillary or triceps region in 25 (71.4%) horses, the stifle region in 2 (5.7%), and the popliteal lymph node in 1 (2.9%). Diffuse lymphangitis was seen in 4 (11.4%) horses, osteomyelitis in 2 (5.7%) horses, and septic arthritis in 2 (5.7%) horses. Horses commonly had clinicopathologic abnormalities characterized by neutrophilia (96.4%), anemia (67.8%), hypoalbuminemia (66.6%), or hyperfibrinogenemia (42.8%). Treatment included surgical drainage of the abscess in 21 (60%) horses, performed under ultrasonography in 20 horses; anti-inflammatory medications in 34 (97.1%) horses; and antimicrobials in 30 (85.7%) horses. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-C pseudotuberculosis infection of the limbs in horses typically results in severe lameness but may have a favorable prognosis. The diagnosis may be challenging, and results of blood work consistent with inflammation are nonspecific, but anemia, hyperglobulinemia, and increased synergistic hemolysis inhibition titers are common. Ultrasonography may localize the lesions and facilitate surgical drainage to alleviate lameness. When C pseudotuberculosis musculoskeletal infection results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, the prognosis for survival is poor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)771-777
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume241
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2012

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Corynebacterium Infections
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Horses
horses
infection
lameness
abscess
Abscess
osteomyelitis
Infectious Arthritis
arthritis
Osteomyelitis
ultrasonography
anemia
prognosis
Anemia
Drainage
Ultrasonography
drainage
lymphangitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Musculoskeletal Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses : 35 cases (1999-2009). / Nogradi, Nora; Spier, Sharon; Toth, Balazs; Vaughan, Mary E.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 241, No. 6, 09.2012, p. 771-777.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Musculoskeletal Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses: 35 cases (1999-2009)",
abstract = "Objective-To describe the clinical course and outcome in horses in which Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections were associated with musculoskeletal disease and lameness. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-35 horses. Procedures-Clinical and clinicopathologic data were collected from horses diagnosed with lameness associated with C pseudotuberculosis infection between 1999 and 2009. Results-32 (91.4{\%}) horses had grade 4/5 lameness. Three (8.6{\%}) horses had grade 5/5 lameness. Abscesses were diagnosed by clinical or ultrasonographic examination. Abscesses were located in the axillary or triceps region in 25 (71.4{\%}) horses, the stifle region in 2 (5.7{\%}), and the popliteal lymph node in 1 (2.9{\%}). Diffuse lymphangitis was seen in 4 (11.4{\%}) horses, osteomyelitis in 2 (5.7{\%}) horses, and septic arthritis in 2 (5.7{\%}) horses. Horses commonly had clinicopathologic abnormalities characterized by neutrophilia (96.4{\%}), anemia (67.8{\%}), hypoalbuminemia (66.6{\%}), or hyperfibrinogenemia (42.8{\%}). Treatment included surgical drainage of the abscess in 21 (60{\%}) horses, performed under ultrasonography in 20 horses; anti-inflammatory medications in 34 (97.1{\%}) horses; and antimicrobials in 30 (85.7{\%}) horses. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-C pseudotuberculosis infection of the limbs in horses typically results in severe lameness but may have a favorable prognosis. The diagnosis may be challenging, and results of blood work consistent with inflammation are nonspecific, but anemia, hyperglobulinemia, and increased synergistic hemolysis inhibition titers are common. Ultrasonography may localize the lesions and facilitate surgical drainage to alleviate lameness. When C pseudotuberculosis musculoskeletal infection results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, the prognosis for survival is poor.",
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