This chapter begins with the history of multiple sclerosis (MS), followed by its clinical feature. The symptoms and signs of MS are variable as the disease can affect the CNS anywhere. Demyelinating lesions may develop at any site along myelinated CNS white matter tracts. The most common symptoms and signs involve alteration or loss of sensation due to involvement of spinothalamic or posterior column fibers, visual loss from optic neuritis, limb weakness and spasticity related to disruption of corticospinal tracts, tremors, and incoordination of gait or limbs, largely related to cerebellar or spinocerebellar fiber involvement. MS may be divided into four clinical categories: clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Most patients change from a CIS to RRMS and then gradually become SPMS. Furthermore, the chapter focuses on the immunologic markers of MS. The CSF of patients with MS typically shows normal glucose, a few lymphocytes, normal to mildly elevated total protein, and oligoclonal immunoglobulin bands (OCBs). The chapter also discusses pathology, epidemiology, animal models, and treatments of MS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)