Multiple FGF4 retrocopies recently derived within canids

Kevin Batcher, Peter Dickinson, Kimberly Maciejczyk, Kristin Brzeski, Sheida Hadji Rasouliha, Anna Letko, Cord Drögemüller, Tosso Leeb, Danika Bannasch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Two transcribed retrocopies of the fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) gene have previously been described in the domestic dog. An FGF4 retrocopy on chr18 is associated with disproportionate dwarfism, while an FGF4 retrocopy on chr12 is associated with both disproportionate dwarfism and intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). In this study, whole-genome sequencing data were queried to identify other FGF4 retrocopies that could be contributing to phenotypic diversity in canids. Additionally, dogs with surgically confirmed IVDD were assayed for novel FGF4 retrocopies. Five additional and distinct FGF4 retrocopies were identified in canids including a copy unique to red wolves (Canis rufus). The FGF4 retrocopies identified in domestic dogs were identical to domestic dog FGF4 haplotypes, which are distinct from modern wolf FGF4 haplotypes, indicating that these retrotransposition events likely occurred after domestication. The identification of multiple, full length FGF4 retrocopies with open reading frames in canids indicates that gene retrotransposition events occur much more frequently than previously thought and provide a mechanism for continued genetic and phenotypic diversity in canids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number839
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Canis lupus familiaris
  • Duplication
  • FGF4
  • Pseudogene
  • Retrocopy
  • Retrogene
  • Retrotransposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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