A 2-year-old female intact Holland lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for acute onset of hemorrhagic vulvar discharge of several hours׳ duration. Physical examination revealed dried blood present on the perineum, a palpably enlarged caudal abdomen, and an enlarged, erythematous vulva. The rest of the physical examination and diagnostic hematology evaluations were unremarkable. Radiographic images showed evidence of an enlarged uterus and abdominal ultrasound revealed soft-tissue masses present in the right uterine horn along with marked dilation of the right uterine horn with echogenic fluid. The left uterine horn was mildly dilated with echogenic fluid. An ovariohysterectomy was performed after which the patient uneventfully recovered. Gross and histologic examination of the uterus revealed multiple endometrial venous aneurysms. Endometrial venous aneurysms are a rare condition only previously described in 3 laboratory rabbits. The authors of this article could not find a report of this condition affecting any other animal species. Ovariohysterectomy is recommended for this condition due to the risk of hemorrhage and is considered a curative procedure. Endometrial venous aneurysm is an important differential disease diagnosis for rabbit patients that are presented with hematuria, an enlarged abdomen, or uterine pathology. Further research is required to better define whether this condition is truly congenital in rabbits and whether the use of color Doppler imaging will aid in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic examinations of suspect patients before surgery.
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