Multimodal ocular imaging of known and novel corneal stromal disorders in dogs

Sangwan Park, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, M. Isabel Casanova, Brian C Leonard, Nicole L. Daley, Kirsten A. Steele, Jennifer Li, Christopher J. Murphy, Sara M. Thomasy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Imaging features obtained with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for corneal stromal disorders have been sparsely reported in dogs. This case report is a compilation of imaging features for three cases of different stromal disorders of the canine cornea which have not yet been reported elsewhere. Case presentation: Lipid deposition in case 1 appeared as needle-shaped hyperreflective lines along the collagen lamellae, which correlated histologically with lipid clefts. In case 2, glycosaminoglycan accumulation by mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 caused diffuse stromal hyperreflectivity and depletion of keratocytes on IVCM and was associated with secondary corneal degeneration presumed to be calcium deposition. In case 3, posterior corneal stromal opacities in the absence of ocular inflammation were identified. Hyperreflective particles were scattered in the middle and posterior corneal stroma on FD-OCT. With IVCM, hyperreflective deposits were identified within keratocytes and the number of enlarged keratocytes containing hyperreflective deposits increased towards the posterior stroma. The bilateral, non-inflammatory nature and unique appearance with IVCM is most consistent with a posterior stromal dystrophy reminiscent of pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy described in humans. Conclusions: In vivo multimodal corneal imaging facilitated instantaneous microstructural analysis and may be valuable in the differential diagnosis of corneal stromal disorders in veterinary clinical practice. The non-specific nature of imaging findings occurs in some conditions such as mucopolysaccharidosis, thus in vivo corneal imaging should be complemented with other gold standard methods of definitive diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number117
JournalBMC veterinary research
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Corneal opacity
  • Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography
  • In vivo confocal microscopy
  • Lipid keratopathy
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis
  • Pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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