Here, we report on the direct sequential imaging of laser-induced cavitation of micron and nanoscale bubbles using Movie-Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (MM-DTEM). A 532 nm laser pulse (∼12 ns) was used to excite gold nanoparticles inside a ∼1.2 μm layer of water, and the resulting bubbles were observed with a series of nine electron pulses (∼10 ns) separated by as little as 40 ns peak to peak. Isolated nanobubbles were observed to collapse in less than 50 ns, while larger (∼2-3 μm) bubbles were observed to grow and collapse in less than 200 ns. Temporal profiles were generally asymmetric, possibly indicating faster growth than collapse dynamics, and the collapse time scale was found to be consistent with modeling and literature data from other techniques. More complex behavior was also observed for bubbles within proximity to each other, with interaction leading to longer lifetimes and more likely rebounding after collapse.
- dynamic transmission electron microscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering