Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific B cell responses and the Th1- or Th2-type profiles of cytokine expression were determined for rhesus macaques immunized with SIV antigens via the iliac lymph nodes (by use of a targeted lymph node [TLN] procedure) or orally with SIV p55(gag) plus cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal adjuvant. Analysis of CD4+ T cells purified from SIV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of immunized macaques revealed that Th2 cytokine production gradually increased after the second and third TLN immunization. Analysis of SIV-specific B cell responses revealed that peak SIV-specific IgA B cell responses followed the third TLN immunization and occurred during peak Th2-type T cell responses. Oral immunization of macaques with p55(gag) plus CT induced interferonγ-secreting Th1-type and select Th2-type cytokine-producing CD4+ T helper cells, which most likely accounted for the induction of p55-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health