Moving toward a true depiction of tobacco behavior among Asian Indians in California: Prevalence and factors associated with cultural smokeless tobacco product use

Arnab Mukherjea, Mary V. Modayil, Elisa Tong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Asian Indians (AIs) in the United States exhibit disproportionate burdens of oral cancer and cardiovascular disease, which are potentially linked to smokeless tobacco. However, little is known about the use of cultural smokeless tobacco (CST) products in this population. METHODS: California Asian Indian Tobacco Use Survey data from 2004 (n = 1618) were used to investigate CST prevalence among California's AIs. CST products included paan, paan masala, and gutka. A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine factors (socioeconomic status, acculturation measures, and religious affiliation) associated with current CST use versus never use. RESULTS: The current CST prevalence was 13.0% (14.0% for men and 11.8% for women). In contrast, the prevalence of current cigarette use was 5.5% (8.7% for men and 1.9% for women), and the prevalence was lower for cultural smoked tobacco (0.1% for bidis and 0.5% for hookahs). Factors associated with CST use included the following: being male, being 50 years old or older, being an immigrant, speaking an AI language at home, having a higher level of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for high school/some college, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-6.5; AOR for college degree or higher, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.5), having a higher income (AOR for $75,000-$100,000, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; AOR for ≥$100,000, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0), identifying as non-Sikh (AOR for Hinduism, 10.0; 95% CI, 6.0-16.5; AOR for other faiths, 10.2; 95% CI, 5.9-17.7), and disagreeing that spiritual beliefs are the foundation of life (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: The current CST prevalence is relatively high among California's AIs in comparison with the prevalence of smoking, with narrower differences between sexes. The association with a higher socioeconomic status is contrary to typical cigarette smoking patterns. Acculturation and religious affiliation are important factors associated with current use. Health care providers and policymakers should consider such determinants for targeted interventions. Cancer 2018;124:1607-13.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1607-1613
Number of pages7
JournalCancer
Volume124
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

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Smokeless Tobacco
Tobacco Use
Tobacco Products
Tobacco
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Acculturation
Social Class
Hinduism
Lobelia
Mouth Diseases
Smoking
Mouth Neoplasms
Sex Characteristics
Health Personnel
Cardiovascular Diseases
Language
Logistic Models
Education

Keywords

  • Asian Indian Americans
  • California
  • cancer disparities
  • culture
  • epidemiology
  • oral tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Moving toward a true depiction of tobacco behavior among Asian Indians in California : Prevalence and factors associated with cultural smokeless tobacco product use. / Mukherjea, Arnab; Modayil, Mary V.; Tong, Elisa.

In: Cancer, Vol. 124, 01.04.2018, p. 1607-1613.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ce1363d0628c41829ba5411e9d644a32,
title = "Moving toward a true depiction of tobacco behavior among Asian Indians in California: Prevalence and factors associated with cultural smokeless tobacco product use",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Asian Indians (AIs) in the United States exhibit disproportionate burdens of oral cancer and cardiovascular disease, which are potentially linked to smokeless tobacco. However, little is known about the use of cultural smokeless tobacco (CST) products in this population. METHODS: California Asian Indian Tobacco Use Survey data from 2004 (n = 1618) were used to investigate CST prevalence among California's AIs. CST products included paan, paan masala, and gutka. A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine factors (socioeconomic status, acculturation measures, and religious affiliation) associated with current CST use versus never use. RESULTS: The current CST prevalence was 13.0{\%} (14.0{\%} for men and 11.8{\%} for women). In contrast, the prevalence of current cigarette use was 5.5{\%} (8.7{\%} for men and 1.9{\%} for women), and the prevalence was lower for cultural smoked tobacco (0.1{\%} for bidis and 0.5{\%} for hookahs). Factors associated with CST use included the following: being male, being 50 years old or older, being an immigrant, speaking an AI language at home, having a higher level of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for high school/some college, 2.6; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.1-6.5; AOR for college degree or higher, 4.0; 95{\%} CI, 1.7-9.5), having a higher income (AOR for $75,000-$100,000, 2.5; 95{\%} CI, 1.3-4.7; AOR for ≥$100,000, 2.6; 95{\%} CI, 1.4-5.0), identifying as non-Sikh (AOR for Hinduism, 10.0; 95{\%} CI, 6.0-16.5; AOR for other faiths, 10.2; 95{\%} CI, 5.9-17.7), and disagreeing that spiritual beliefs are the foundation of life (AOR, 2.1; 95{\%} CI, 1.2-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: The current CST prevalence is relatively high among California's AIs in comparison with the prevalence of smoking, with narrower differences between sexes. The association with a higher socioeconomic status is contrary to typical cigarette smoking patterns. Acculturation and religious affiliation are important factors associated with current use. Health care providers and policymakers should consider such determinants for targeted interventions. Cancer 2018;124:1607-13.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: Asian Indians (AIs) in the United States exhibit disproportionate burdens of oral cancer and cardiovascular disease, which are potentially linked to smokeless tobacco. However, little is known about the use of cultural smokeless tobacco (CST) products in this population. METHODS: California Asian Indian Tobacco Use Survey data from 2004 (n = 1618) were used to investigate CST prevalence among California's AIs. CST products included paan, paan masala, and gutka. A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine factors (socioeconomic status, acculturation measures, and religious affiliation) associated with current CST use versus never use. RESULTS: The current CST prevalence was 13.0% (14.0% for men and 11.8% for women). In contrast, the prevalence of current cigarette use was 5.5% (8.7% for men and 1.9% for women), and the prevalence was lower for cultural smoked tobacco (0.1% for bidis and 0.5% for hookahs). Factors associated with CST use included the following: being male, being 50 years old or older, being an immigrant, speaking an AI language at home, having a higher level of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for high school/some college, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-6.5; AOR for college degree or higher, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.5), having a higher income (AOR for $75,000-$100,000, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; AOR for ≥$100,000, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0), identifying as non-Sikh (AOR for Hinduism, 10.0; 95% CI, 6.0-16.5; AOR for other faiths, 10.2; 95% CI, 5.9-17.7), and disagreeing that spiritual beliefs are the foundation of life (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: The current CST prevalence is relatively high among California's AIs in comparison with the prevalence of smoking, with narrower differences between sexes. The association with a higher socioeconomic status is contrary to typical cigarette smoking patterns. Acculturation and religious affiliation are important factors associated with current use. Health care providers and policymakers should consider such determinants for targeted interventions. Cancer 2018;124:1607-13.

AB - BACKGROUND: Asian Indians (AIs) in the United States exhibit disproportionate burdens of oral cancer and cardiovascular disease, which are potentially linked to smokeless tobacco. However, little is known about the use of cultural smokeless tobacco (CST) products in this population. METHODS: California Asian Indian Tobacco Use Survey data from 2004 (n = 1618) were used to investigate CST prevalence among California's AIs. CST products included paan, paan masala, and gutka. A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine factors (socioeconomic status, acculturation measures, and religious affiliation) associated with current CST use versus never use. RESULTS: The current CST prevalence was 13.0% (14.0% for men and 11.8% for women). In contrast, the prevalence of current cigarette use was 5.5% (8.7% for men and 1.9% for women), and the prevalence was lower for cultural smoked tobacco (0.1% for bidis and 0.5% for hookahs). Factors associated with CST use included the following: being male, being 50 years old or older, being an immigrant, speaking an AI language at home, having a higher level of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for high school/some college, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-6.5; AOR for college degree or higher, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.5), having a higher income (AOR for $75,000-$100,000, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; AOR for ≥$100,000, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0), identifying as non-Sikh (AOR for Hinduism, 10.0; 95% CI, 6.0-16.5; AOR for other faiths, 10.2; 95% CI, 5.9-17.7), and disagreeing that spiritual beliefs are the foundation of life (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: The current CST prevalence is relatively high among California's AIs in comparison with the prevalence of smoking, with narrower differences between sexes. The association with a higher socioeconomic status is contrary to typical cigarette smoking patterns. Acculturation and religious affiliation are important factors associated with current use. Health care providers and policymakers should consider such determinants for targeted interventions. Cancer 2018;124:1607-13.

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