The monolayer growth of Nb-doped SrTiO3 on SrTiO3 (100) substrate is prepared by a pulsed laser deposition method. The growth and annealing of the film in vacuum and in oxygen ambient are monitored in real time by an oblique-incidence optical reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique and reflection high-energy electron diffraction technique. The films annealed in different ambient result in different optical annealing signals. From the comparison of experimental OIRD signals with the simulation of OIRD signals, we prove that the optical technique can easily tell whether the oxygen vacancies are moving into or moving out of the film during the annealing. The optical signals are found to be composed of contributions from step edges and terraces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)