The rapidly expanding field of preventive cardiology has brought with it several major advances in the past decade. Changes in guidelines for cholesterol mangement focusing on the identification of “statin eligible groups” and removal of actual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets, in particular, as well as lower targets for blood pressure in updated hypertension guidelines, have made a major impact on healthcare. The availability of the sodium glucose transport protein-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide -1 receptor antagonists (GLP1-RA) for managing diabetes have shifted our focus in diabetes care beyond glucose lowering to addressing cardiovascular risk reduction. While many prior trials of fish oil therapy have failed to show benefit, the recent Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA – Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) testing the efficacy of icosapent ethyl has shown dramatic benefit in further addressing residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk beyond statin therapy not only in those with known ASCVD, but also in diabetic patients with multiple risk factors. The past decade also ushered in confirmation of the inflammation hypothesis of atherosclerosis with the Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) using canakinumab, despite the fact the therapy was not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cardiovascular risk reduction. Also, to improve our understanding of heart disease in women, the emergence of novel concepts of ischemia or myocardial infarction in those with normal or nonobstructive atherosclerotic disease has been a major advance. Moreover, the past decade brought the emergence of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibody therapy and the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits seen in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES) trials, providing further evidence-based therapy for additional reduction of ASCVD risk beyond statin therapy. The PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies have facilitated the attainment of LDL-C levels never previously thought possible. Finally with the mRNA interference therapy inclisiran in development, we may soon have a “vaccine-like” approach for addressing dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.
- Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
- Preventive cardiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine