Background. Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission. Methodology. We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four species in the A. gambiae complex, the two major malaria vectors A,. gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae s.s.) and A. arabiensis, as well as two minor vectors, A. merus and A. melas. Principal Findings. We identify six taxonomic units, including a clear separation of West and East Africa A. gambiae s.s. S molecular forms. We show that the phylogenetic relationships vary widely between different genomic regions, thus demonstrating the mosaic nature of the genome of these species. The two major malaria vectors are closely related and closer to A. merus than to A. melas at the genome-wide level, which is also true if only autosomes are considered. However, within the Xag inversion region of the X chromosome, the M and two S molecular forms are most similar to A. merus. Near the X centromere, outside the Xag region, the two S forms are highly dissimilar to the other taxa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the centromeric region of chromosome 3 is a strong discriminator between the major and minor malaria vectors. Conclusions. Although further studies are needed to elucidate the basis of the phylogenetic variation among the different regions of the genome, the preponderance of sympatric admixtures among taxa strongly favor introgression of different genomic regions between species, rather than lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism, as a possible mechanism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)