Morphometrical study of the lumbar segment of the internal vertebral venous plexus in dogs: A contrast ct-based study

Valeria Ariete, Natalia Barnert, Marcelo Gómez, Marcelo Mieres, Bárbara Pérez, Juan Claudio Gutierrez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP) is a thin-walled, valveless venous network that is located inside the vertebral canal, communicating with the cerebral venous sinuses. The objective of this study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the IVVP, dural sac, epidural space and vertebral canal between the L1 and L7 vertebrae with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Six clinically healthy adult dogs weighing between 12 kg to 28 kg were used in the study. The CT venographic protocol consisted of a manual injection of 880 mgI/kg of contrast agent (587 mgI/kg in a bolus and 293 mgI/mL by continuous infusion). In all CT images, the dimensions of the IVVP, dural sac, and vertebral canal were collected. Dorsal reconstruction CT images showed a continuous rhomboidal morphological pattern for the IVVP. The dural sac was observed as a rounded isodense structure throughout the vertebral canal. The average area of the IVVP ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 mm2 between L1 and L7 vertebrae (6.3–8.9% of the vertebral canal), and the area of the dural sac was between 1.22 and 7.42 mm2 (13.8–72.2% of the vertebral canal). The area of the epidural space between L1 and L7 ranged from 2.85 to 7.78 mm2 (27.8–86.2% of the vertebral canal). This CT venography protocol is a safe method that allows adequate visualization and morphometric evaluation of the IVVP and adjacent structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1502
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Canine
  • Computed tomography
  • Internal vertebral venous plexus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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