Morphology of chromium emissions from a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame

Ian M. Kennedy, Yanda Zhang, A. Daniel Jones, Daniel P Y Chang, Peter B. Kelly, Youngbin Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The morphology and size distribution of chromium oxide particles has been studied in laminar hydrogen diffusion flames. Nitrogen was added to vary the flame temperatures. Two sources of chromium compounds were introduced: chromium nitrate and chromium hexacarbonyl. In order to clarify the morphology of chromium oxide particles that were produced in the flame, a detailed investigation was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after sampling with an isokinetic, dilution sampling probe. The morphology of the particles varied with the flame temperature and with the chromium source. The particles were characterized by porous structures, cenospheres, and agglomerated dense particles when chromium nitrate solution was added to the flames. At low to moderate temperatures, porous sintered cenospheric structures were formed, in some cases with a blow hole. At higher temperatures, an agglomerated cluster, which was composed of loosely sintered submicron particles was observed. SEM analysis revealed that the size distribution of chromium oxide particles was bimodal; submicron sizes were generated by the mechanism of cenosphere fragmentation. Chromium oxides formed from adding chromium hexacarbonyl to a hydrogen flame did not exhibit cenospheric structures. At high temperatures, a film of crystalline material was deposited onto a filter; at low temperatures very small agglomerated chains were found. The morphology of the metal particles is strongly dependent on the form in which the metal enters a flame.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-242
Number of pages10
JournalCombustion and Flame
Volume116
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Fingerprint

diffusion flames
Chromium
Hydrogen
chromium
chromium oxides
hydrogen
flames
flame temperature
Temperature
Oxides
Chromium Compounds
Metals
nitrates
Sampling
chromium compounds
sampling
Scanning electron microscopy
Nitrates
scanning electron microscopy
Chromium compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Fuel Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Kennedy, I. M., Zhang, Y., Jones, A. D., Chang, D. P. Y., Kelly, P. B., & Yoon, Y. (1999). Morphology of chromium emissions from a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame. Combustion and Flame, 116(1-2), 233-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(98)00032-7

Morphology of chromium emissions from a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame. / Kennedy, Ian M.; Zhang, Yanda; Jones, A. Daniel; Chang, Daniel P Y; Kelly, Peter B.; Yoon, Youngbin.

In: Combustion and Flame, Vol. 116, No. 1-2, 1999, p. 233-242.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kennedy, IM, Zhang, Y, Jones, AD, Chang, DPY, Kelly, PB & Yoon, Y 1999, 'Morphology of chromium emissions from a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame', Combustion and Flame, vol. 116, no. 1-2, pp. 233-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(98)00032-7
Kennedy, Ian M. ; Zhang, Yanda ; Jones, A. Daniel ; Chang, Daniel P Y ; Kelly, Peter B. ; Yoon, Youngbin. / Morphology of chromium emissions from a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame. In: Combustion and Flame. 1999 ; Vol. 116, No. 1-2. pp. 233-242.
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