Morphologic and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

Diana Schwartz, David Sanchez Migallon Guzman, Hugues Beaufrere, Melanie Ammersbach, Joanne Paul-Murphy, Thomas N. Tully, Mary M. Christopher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Bone marrow aspirate assessments provide valuable information about hematopoietic status and hematologic disease. Hematopoietic cell differentials and morphologies have been anecdotally described in psittacines, but quantitative studies are lacking. Objectives: We aimed to determine differential cell counts and calculate granulocyte:erythroid (G:E) ratios in bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and report representative morphologies of the hematopoietic cells. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 32 clinically healthy, captive, parrots. Peripheral blood was obtained for CBCs. Bone marrow differential cell counts (%) were determined by counting 500 cells on modified Wright's-stained smears. G:E ratios were calculated. Representative images of hematopoietic cells at all stages of development were taken. Results: Of the 32 parrots sampled, 17 bone marrow samples were of sufficient cellularity and quality for evaluation. Erythroid cells comprised 68.9 ± 8.6% (total ± SD) of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of early- and late-stage polychromatophilic rubricytes (43.6 ± 2.1% of total erythroid cells). Granulocytic cells comprised 28.1 ± 3.8% of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of mature and band heterophils (11.9 ± 5.2% and 6.5 ± 3.4%, respectively, of total granulocytic cells). A unique morphologic finding in avian progranulocytes was the presence of multiple different granules. The G:E ratio was 0.4 ± 0.2 (median 0.4, range 0.1-0.9). Thrombocyte lineage cells could not be reliably identified and were not counted. CBC results were largely within expected limits. Conclusions: The low G:E ratios observed could be normal in this species; however, these ratios could be affected by factors related to sampling and cell identification. These findings will be a valuable resource for the diagnostic evaluation of clinical bone marrow samples from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could serve as a general reference for psittacine bone marrow evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Clinical Pathology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Amazona
parrots
bone marrow
Bone Marrow
Granulocytes
cells
granulocytes
Psittaciformes
Parrots
Erythroid Cells
Cell Count
Granulocyte Precursor Cells
Hematologic Diseases
hematologic diseases
blood platelets
Bone Marrow Cells
heterophils
Blood Platelets

Keywords

  • avian
  • erythropoiesis
  • granulopoiesis
  • hematology
  • hematopoiesis
  • morphology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{e5aa06d592534380b1730024ea6edc83,
title = "Morphologic and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)",
abstract = "Background: Bone marrow aspirate assessments provide valuable information about hematopoietic status and hematologic disease. Hematopoietic cell differentials and morphologies have been anecdotally described in psittacines, but quantitative studies are lacking. Objectives: We aimed to determine differential cell counts and calculate granulocyte:erythroid (G:E) ratios in bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and report representative morphologies of the hematopoietic cells. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 32 clinically healthy, captive, parrots. Peripheral blood was obtained for CBCs. Bone marrow differential cell counts ({\%}) were determined by counting 500 cells on modified Wright's-stained smears. G:E ratios were calculated. Representative images of hematopoietic cells at all stages of development were taken. Results: Of the 32 parrots sampled, 17 bone marrow samples were of sufficient cellularity and quality for evaluation. Erythroid cells comprised 68.9 ± 8.6{\%} (total ± SD) of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of early- and late-stage polychromatophilic rubricytes (43.6 ± 2.1{\%} of total erythroid cells). Granulocytic cells comprised 28.1 ± 3.8{\%} of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of mature and band heterophils (11.9 ± 5.2{\%} and 6.5 ± 3.4{\%}, respectively, of total granulocytic cells). A unique morphologic finding in avian progranulocytes was the presence of multiple different granules. The G:E ratio was 0.4 ± 0.2 (median 0.4, range 0.1-0.9). Thrombocyte lineage cells could not be reliably identified and were not counted. CBC results were largely within expected limits. Conclusions: The low G:E ratios observed could be normal in this species; however, these ratios could be affected by factors related to sampling and cell identification. These findings will be a valuable resource for the diagnostic evaluation of clinical bone marrow samples from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could serve as a general reference for psittacine bone marrow evaluation.",
keywords = "avian, erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, hematology, hematopoiesis, morphology",
author = "Diana Schwartz and Guzman, {David Sanchez Migallon} and Hugues Beaufrere and Melanie Ammersbach and Joanne Paul-Murphy and Tully, {Thomas N.} and Christopher, {Mary M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/vcp.12799",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Veterinary Clinical Pathology",
issn = "0275-6382",
publisher = "American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Morphologic and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

AU - Schwartz, Diana

AU - Guzman, David Sanchez Migallon

AU - Beaufrere, Hugues

AU - Ammersbach, Melanie

AU - Paul-Murphy, Joanne

AU - Tully, Thomas N.

AU - Christopher, Mary M.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Bone marrow aspirate assessments provide valuable information about hematopoietic status and hematologic disease. Hematopoietic cell differentials and morphologies have been anecdotally described in psittacines, but quantitative studies are lacking. Objectives: We aimed to determine differential cell counts and calculate granulocyte:erythroid (G:E) ratios in bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and report representative morphologies of the hematopoietic cells. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 32 clinically healthy, captive, parrots. Peripheral blood was obtained for CBCs. Bone marrow differential cell counts (%) were determined by counting 500 cells on modified Wright's-stained smears. G:E ratios were calculated. Representative images of hematopoietic cells at all stages of development were taken. Results: Of the 32 parrots sampled, 17 bone marrow samples were of sufficient cellularity and quality for evaluation. Erythroid cells comprised 68.9 ± 8.6% (total ± SD) of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of early- and late-stage polychromatophilic rubricytes (43.6 ± 2.1% of total erythroid cells). Granulocytic cells comprised 28.1 ± 3.8% of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of mature and band heterophils (11.9 ± 5.2% and 6.5 ± 3.4%, respectively, of total granulocytic cells). A unique morphologic finding in avian progranulocytes was the presence of multiple different granules. The G:E ratio was 0.4 ± 0.2 (median 0.4, range 0.1-0.9). Thrombocyte lineage cells could not be reliably identified and were not counted. CBC results were largely within expected limits. Conclusions: The low G:E ratios observed could be normal in this species; however, these ratios could be affected by factors related to sampling and cell identification. These findings will be a valuable resource for the diagnostic evaluation of clinical bone marrow samples from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could serve as a general reference for psittacine bone marrow evaluation.

AB - Background: Bone marrow aspirate assessments provide valuable information about hematopoietic status and hematologic disease. Hematopoietic cell differentials and morphologies have been anecdotally described in psittacines, but quantitative studies are lacking. Objectives: We aimed to determine differential cell counts and calculate granulocyte:erythroid (G:E) ratios in bone marrow aspirates from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and report representative morphologies of the hematopoietic cells. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 32 clinically healthy, captive, parrots. Peripheral blood was obtained for CBCs. Bone marrow differential cell counts (%) were determined by counting 500 cells on modified Wright's-stained smears. G:E ratios were calculated. Representative images of hematopoietic cells at all stages of development were taken. Results: Of the 32 parrots sampled, 17 bone marrow samples were of sufficient cellularity and quality for evaluation. Erythroid cells comprised 68.9 ± 8.6% (total ± SD) of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of early- and late-stage polychromatophilic rubricytes (43.6 ± 2.1% of total erythroid cells). Granulocytic cells comprised 28.1 ± 3.8% of the hematopoietic cells and consisted primarily of mature and band heterophils (11.9 ± 5.2% and 6.5 ± 3.4%, respectively, of total granulocytic cells). A unique morphologic finding in avian progranulocytes was the presence of multiple different granules. The G:E ratio was 0.4 ± 0.2 (median 0.4, range 0.1-0.9). Thrombocyte lineage cells could not be reliably identified and were not counted. CBC results were largely within expected limits. Conclusions: The low G:E ratios observed could be normal in this species; however, these ratios could be affected by factors related to sampling and cell identification. These findings will be a valuable resource for the diagnostic evaluation of clinical bone marrow samples from Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could serve as a general reference for psittacine bone marrow evaluation.

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KW - erythropoiesis

KW - granulopoiesis

KW - hematology

KW - hematopoiesis

KW - morphology

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DO - 10.1111/vcp.12799

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