Morphogenesis of Bone, Morphogenetic Proteins, and Regenerative Medicine

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter provides an overview of morphogenesis of bone and morphogenetic proteins and describes regenerative medicine. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), the primordial inductive signals for bone, are isolated from demineralized bone matrix from adults. BMPs initiate, promote, and maintain chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and have actions beyond bone. BMPs regulate each of the key steps that include chemotaxis, mitosis, and differentiation of cartilage and bone. BMPs initiate chondrogenesis in the limb. The apical ectodermal ridge is the source of BMPs in the developing limb bud. The intricate dynamic, reciprocal interactions between the ectodermally derived epithelium and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme sets into motion the train of events culminating in the pattern of phalanges, radius, ulna, and the humerus. The hypertrophic chondrocytes in the epiphyseal growth plate mineralize and serve as a template for appositional bone morphogenesis. Cartilage morphogenesis is critical for both bone and joint morphogenesis. The redifferentiation and maintenance of the chondrocytes for cell therapy can be aided by BMPs, cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins (CDMPs), TGFβ isoforms, and insulin growth factors (IGFs). It is also possible to repair cartilage using muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Regenerative Medicine
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9780123814227
StatePublished - 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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