Morbidity and mortality in free-living raptorial birds of Northern California: A retrospective study, 1983-1994

Teresa Y. Morishita, Asta T. Fullerton, Linda J Lowenstine, Ian Gardner, Dale L. Brooks

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42 Scopus citations


A 12-year (1983-1994) retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of morbidity and mortality in free-living raptorial birds of northern California. Of the 409 birds included in this study, 58% died of traumatic injuries and 30% died of infectious disease. The most frequent presenting signs were fractures, recumbency, shock, suboptimal weight, and dehydration. Although 30% of these raptors were in good nutritional condition, nearly 50% either were in fair condition or were emaciated. Pathologic lesions found in a few raptors (0.8%) indicated an underlying disease (eg, tuberculosis) was present before the birds succumbed to an acute, lethal, traumatic incident.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-81
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1998



  • Hawks
  • Morbidity
  • Mortality
  • Nutritional status
  • Owls
  • Pathology
  • Raptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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