Monitoring pregnancy in twinning pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) using fecal estrogen metabolites

Mike H. Jurke, Nancy M. Czekala, Susanna Jurke, Lee R. Hagey, Valentine A. Lance, Alan J Conley, Helena Fitch-Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Estrone and estrone conjugates were measured in the feces of three female pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus) throughout estrus, pregnancy, and the postpartum period. Two females gave birth to twins, while the third had a single stillborn. A comparison between the hormonal profiles of these three pregnancies with each other and with previously reported pregnancies resulting in singletons or twins [Jurke et al., American Journal of Primatology 41:103-115, 1997] revealed a characteristic pattern of hormonal excretion. This report adds data to and confirms previous claims that monitoring estrone in this species provides a tool to assess gestation length (via determination of estrus period) and to predict the date of parturition and the number of offspring. However, there was an exceptional case of a pregnancy which had the hormonal appearance of a twin pregnancy but resulted in a single stillborn infant. This case prompted us to search for new insights into the characteristics and the origin of the estrogens that are excreted into the feces. Aromatase activity was evaluated in five partial placentae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-183
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1998


  • Aromatase
  • Fecal estrogen
  • Gestation
  • HPLC
  • Placenta
  • Pygmy loris

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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