Molecular evolution of CXC chemokines: Extant CXC chemokines originate from the CNS

Mark O. Huising, René J.M. Stet, Corine P. Kruiswijk, Huub F.J. Savelkoul, B. M.Lidy Verburg-Van Kemenade

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations


The mammalian CXC chemokine system comprises 16 ligands and six receptors, and its actions stretch well beyond the immune system. Recent elucidation of the pufferfish genome, a representative of an evolutionary ancient vertebrate class, has enabled analysis of the mammalian CXC chemokine system in a phylogenetic context. Comparison of the phylogenies of vertebrate CXC chemokines revealed that fish and mammals have found different solutions to similar problems, grafted on the same basic structural motif. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the large, highly redundant CXC chemokine family is a very recent phenomenon that is exclusive to higher vertebrates. Moreover, its ancestral role is found within the central nervous system and not within the immune system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)306-312
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Immunology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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