Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread

Michael Dale Lairmore, Rajaneesh Anupam, Nadine Bowden, Robyn Haines, Rashade A H Haynes, Lee Ratner, Patrick L. Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1131-1165
Number of pages35
JournalViruses
Volume3
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Viruses
Viral Cell Transformation
rex Gene Products
pX Genes
Tropical Spastic Paraparesis
pol Genes
gag Genes
env Genes
Adult T Cell Leukemia Lymphoma
Spinal Cord Diseases
Viral Proteins
Human Milk
Virus Diseases
Retroviridae
Blood Transfusion
Japan
Animal Models
Clone Cells
Mothers
Genome

Keywords

  • Animal models
  • Determinants
  • HTLV-1
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I
  • Replication
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Lairmore, M. D., Anupam, R., Bowden, N., Haines, R., Haynes, R. A. H., Ratner, L., & Green, P. L. (2011). Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread. Viruses, 3(7), 1131-1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/v3071131

Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread. / Lairmore, Michael Dale; Anupam, Rajaneesh; Bowden, Nadine; Haines, Robyn; Haynes, Rashade A H; Ratner, Lee; Green, Patrick L.

In: Viruses, Vol. 3, No. 7, 07.2011, p. 1131-1165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lairmore, MD, Anupam, R, Bowden, N, Haines, R, Haynes, RAH, Ratner, L & Green, PL 2011, 'Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread', Viruses, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 1131-1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/v3071131
Lairmore MD, Anupam R, Bowden N, Haines R, Haynes RAH, Ratner L et al. Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread. Viruses. 2011 Jul;3(7):1131-1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/v3071131
Lairmore, Michael Dale ; Anupam, Rajaneesh ; Bowden, Nadine ; Haines, Robyn ; Haynes, Rashade A H ; Ratner, Lee ; Green, Patrick L. / Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I transmission and spread. In: Viruses. 2011 ; Vol. 3, No. 7. pp. 1131-1165.
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