Modes of Transmission of Zika Virus

Christopher J. Gregory, Titilope Oduyebo, Aaron Brault, John T. Brooks, Koo Whang Chung, Susan Hills, Matthew J. Kuehnert, Paul Mead, Dana Meaney-Delman, Ingrid Rabe, Erin Staples, Lyle R. Petersen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


For >60 years, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as an arthropod-borne virus with Aedes species mosquitoes as the primary vector. However in the past 10 years, multiple alternative routes of ZIKV transmission have been identified. We review the available data on vector and non-vector-borne modes of transmission and interventions undertaken, to date, to reduce the risk of human infection through these routes. Although much has been learned during the outbreak in the Americas on the underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-vector-borne ZIKV infections, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the relative incidence of, and risk from, these modes compared to mosquito transmission. Additional research is urgently needed on the risk, pathogenesis, and effectiveness of measures to mitigate non-vector-borne ZIKV transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S875-S883
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Aedes mosquitoes
  • pathogenesis
  • transmission modes
  • Zika virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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