Modeling insertional mutagenesis using gene length and expression in murine embryonic stem cells

Alexander Nord, Karen Vranizan, Whittemore Tingley, Alexander C. Zambon, Kristina Hanspers, Loren G. Fong, Yan Hu, Peter Bacchetti, Thomas E. Ferrin, Patricia C. Babbitt, Scott W. Doniger, William C. Skarnes, Stephen G. Young, Bruce R. Conklin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Background. High-throughput mutagenesis of the mammalian genome is a powerful means to facilitate analysis of gene function. Gene trapping in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the most widely used form of-insertional mutagenesis in mammals. However, the rules governing its efficiency are not fully understood, and the effects of vector design on the likelihood of gene-trapping events have not been tested on a genome-wide scale. Methodology/Principal Findings. In this study, we used public gene-trap data to model gene-trap likelihood. Using the association of gene length and gene expression-with gene-trap likekhood, we constructed spline-based regression models that characterize which genes are susceptible and which genes are resistant to gene-trapping techniques. We report results for three classes of gene-trap vectors, showing that both, length and expression are significant determinants of trap likelihood for all vectots. Using our models, we also quantitatively identified hotspots of gene-trap activity, which represent loci where the high likelihood of vector insertion is controlled by factors other than length and expression. These formalized statistical models describe a high proportion of the variance in the likelihood of a gene being trapped by expression-dependent vectors and a lower, but still significant, proportion of the variance for vectors that are predicted to be independent of endogenous gene expression. Conclusion/Significance. The findings of significant expression and length effects reported here further the understanding of the determinants of vector insertion. Results from this analysis can be applied to help identify other important determinants of this Important biological phenomenon and could assist planning of large-scale mutagenesis efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere617
JournalPLoS One
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 18 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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