Midterm Outcomes After Endovascular Intervention for Occluded vs Stenosed External Iliac Arteries

Damianos G. Kokkinidis, Bejan Alvandi, Prio Hossain, T. Raymond Foley, Caitlin E. Kielhorn, Gagan D. Singh, Stephen W. Waldo, John R. Laird, Ehrin Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate the association between a chronic total occlusion (CTO) and long-term outcomes among patients undergoing endovascular intervention to the external iliac artery (EIA). Methods: A 2-center retrospective study was conducted of 331 patients (mean age 64.7±12.7 years; 221 men) who underwent endovascular intervention for 481 EIA atherosclerotic lesions between 2006 and 2016. A quarter of the lesions (115, 23.9%) were CTOs. The majority of patients (184, 60.9%) were treated for claudication; 172 (38%) lesions were TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus type C or D. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse limb event (MALE) rates were compared between lesions with or without an EIA CTO. A Cox proportional hazard model was subsequently developed to determine baseline variables associated with long-term outcomes after successful endovascular intervention of stented EIAs; outcomes are presented as the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean lesion length was longer (84 vs 50 mm, p<0.001) among patients treated for CTOs. While overall the target lesion failure rates were very low (2.8%), vessel perforation (2.7% vs 0.3%, p=0.02) and distal embolization (2.7% vs 0.9%, p=0.02) were more common in the CTO group. Among 377 successfully crossed and stented lesions (93 CTOs), the overall 1-year primary patency was 78% and secondary patency was 92%. One-year and 5-year TLR rates were 8.2% and 15.4%, respectively. CTO intervention was associated with higher 5-year TLR rates in the unadjusted analysis (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.56, p=0.050), but the association did not remain significant after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion: Intervention to EIA CTOs is associated with increased intraprocedural complexity but with similar midterm outcomes, including high patency and low rates of TLR to 5 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-191
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Endovascular Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018


  • angioplasty
  • atherosclerotic disease
  • chronic total occlusions
  • external iliac artery
  • patency
  • peripheral artery disease
  • stenosis
  • stent
  • target lesion revascularization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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