Microneedle array for transdermal biological fluid extraction and in situ analysis

E. V. Mukerjee, S. D. Collins, Roslyn Rivkah Isseroff, R. L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

227 Scopus citations


This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a hollow microneedle array with integrated, fluidic microchannels. The microneedles are machined from single crystal silicon to a shank height of 250-350μm with 300μm center-to-center spacing. The needle size, density and shape are controlled by independent processing steps. Piercing of the protective stratum corenum layer of the skin by the microneedles, providing access to the living epithelial layers underneath, is successfully demonstrated. Filling of the integrated microchannels by capillary action with both non-biological fluids (glycerol, ethanol, surrogate interstitial fluid (ISF) and water) as well as biological fluids (ISF and whole blood) is demonstrated. The ability to extract interstitial fluid from human skin is successfully achieved and verified by the in situ measurement of glucose concentration. The microchip presented here represents the first step towards the realization of a transdermal, ISF extraction and analysis microsystem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-275
Number of pages9
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004


  • ISF extraction
  • Silicon microneedle
  • Transdermal fluid movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Instrumentation


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