Microarray immunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid using polymer encapsulated Eu: Gd2O3 nanoparticles as fluorescent labels

Mikaela Nichkova, Dosi Dosev, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock, Ian M. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

191 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Currently, detection in microarray bioanalysis is based mainly on the use of organic dyes. To overcome photobleaching and spectral overlaps we applied a new type of fluorophore, crystalline europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd 2O3) nanoparticles, as labels in immunoassay microarrays. The Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by spray pyrolysis offer narrow red emission, large Stokes shift, photostable laser-induced fluorescence with a long lifetime (1 ms). The amino functionalization of the particles was achieved by poly(L-lysine) (PL) encapsulation. The formation of a stable PL shell was confirmed by TEM analysis, colloidal stability studies, and quantification of the surface reactive amino groups. The PL-encapsulated particles were covalently conjugated to antibodies and successfully applied as reporters in a competitive fluorescence microimmunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), a generic biomarker of human exposure to pyrethroid insecticides. Microarrays were fabricated by microcontact printing of BSA-PBA in line patterns (10 × 10 μm). Confocal fluorescence microscopy combined with internal standard (fluorescein) calibration was used for quantitative measurements. The microarray immunoassay demonstrated a limit of detection of 1.4 μg L -1 PBA. This work suggests the potential application of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles as fluorescent probes in microarray and biosensor technology, immunodiagnostics, and high-throughput screening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6864-6873
Number of pages10
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume77
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2005

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Microarrays
Labels
Polymers
Nanoparticles
Acids
Fluorescence
Europium
Photobleaching
Lanthanoid Series Elements
Pyrethrins
Spray pyrolysis
Fluorophores
Confocal microscopy
Fluorescence microscopy
Biomarkers
Insecticides
Fluorescent Dyes
Encapsulation
Biosensors
Oxides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

Cite this

Microarray immunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid using polymer encapsulated Eu : Gd2O3 nanoparticles as fluorescent labels. / Nichkova, Mikaela; Dosev, Dosi; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

In: Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 21, 01.11.2005, p. 6864-6873.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nichkova, Mikaela ; Dosev, Dosi ; Gee, Shirley J. ; Hammock, Bruce D. ; Kennedy, Ian M. / Microarray immunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid using polymer encapsulated Eu : Gd2O3 nanoparticles as fluorescent labels. In: Analytical Chemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 77, No. 21. pp. 6864-6873.
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