Metastatic melanoma – A review of current and future treatment options

Emanual Michael Maverakis, Lynn A. Cornelius, Glen M. Bowen, Tiffany Phan, Falin B. Patel, Sarah Fitzmaurice, Young He, Barbara A Burrall, Christopher Duong, April M. Kloxin, Hawa Sultani, Reason Wilken, Steve R. Martinez, Forum Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

145 Scopus citations


Despite advances in treatment and surveillance, melanoma continues to claim approximately 9,000 lives in the US annually (SEER 2013). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network currently recommends ipilumumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and high-dose IL-2 as first line agents for Stage IV melanoma. Little data exists to guide management of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases despite the fact that they are relatively common. Existing options include intralesional Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, isolated limb perfusion/infusion, interferon-α, topical imiquimod, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, interferon therapy, and intratumoral interleukin-2 injections. Newly emerging treatments include the anti-programmed cell death 1 receptor agents (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), anti-programmed death-ligand 1 agents, and oncolytic vaccines (talimogene laherparepevec). Available treatments for select sites include adoptive Tcell therapies and dendritic cell vaccines. In addition to reviewing the above agents and their mechanisms of action, this review will also focus on combination therapy as these strategies have shown promising results in clinical trials for metastatic melanoma treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)516-524
Number of pages9
JournalActa Dermato-Venereologica
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2015


  • CTLA-4
  • IL-2
  • PD-1
  • Stage III
  • Stage IV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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