The advancement of high-resolution metabolomics (HRM)and metabolome-wide-association study (MWAS)enables the readout of environmental effects in human specimens. We used HRM to understand DDT-induced alterations of in utero environment and potential health effects. Endogenous metabolites were measured in 397 maternal perinatal serum samples collected during 1959-1967 in the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS)and in 16 maternal postnatal serum samples of mice treated with or without DDT. MWAS was performed to assess associations between metabolites and p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE levels, followed by pathway analysis. Distinct metabolic profiles were found with p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE. Amino acids such arginine had a strong association with p,p’-DDT and o,p’-DDT in both women and mice, whereas lipids and acyl-carnitine intermediates were found exclusively associated with p,p’-DDE in CHDS women indicating mitochondrial impairment. It suggests that the role of serine and fatty acid metabolism on the causal disease pathway should be examined.
- in utero
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