The transformation of the herbicide tridiphane (Tandem, Dowco 356, 2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)oxirane by the epoxide-metabolizing enzymes, epoxide hydrolases (EH) and glutathione S-transferases (GST), was investigated in mouse liver microsomes and cytosol. The microsomal EH catalyzed the formation of tridiphane diol. The production of this metabolite was prevented by cyclohexene oxide at 1 mm, a known inhibitor of microsomal EH. The structure of the diol was verified by comparison of retention time or Rf of the compound with those of an authentic standard using gas-liquid chromatography or thin-layer chromatography techniques. The diol formed a diester with 1-butane boronic acid or an aldehyde with lead tetraacetate. Mass spectral analysis supported the structural assignment. After optimization of the assay conditions, kinetic constants for the hydration of tridiphane by the microsomal EH were determined (Km = 65 μm and Vmax = 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein). Dietary exposure of mice to the hypolipidemic drug clofibrate at a dose of 0.5% (w/w) for 2 weeks increased by 173% the metabolism of tridiphane to tridiphane diol by the microsomal fraction. No diol could be detected following incubation of tridiphane with the cytosolic EH, even after induction by clofibrate. Tridiphane was also a substrate for GST, but administration of clofibrate did not change the specific activity for the formation of the glutathione conjugate. The herbicide was a rather weak inhibitor of the microsomal EH and the cytosolic GST activities measured with cis-stilbene oxide and trans-stilbene oxide as substrates with I50's of 3.0 × 10-5 and 1.8 × 10-4m, respectively. Tridiphane diol was a poor inhibitor of the enzymes studied, and the glutathione conjugate of tridiphane caused marked inhibition of only the GST activity (I50, 2.0 × 10-5m). By contrast the activity of cytosolic EH (trans-stilbene oxide) was relatively insensitive to the addition of tridiphane or of tridiphane metabolites.
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