Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatic Stress in Therapeutic Work With Trauma Victims

Jennifer M. Hensel, Carlos Ruiz, Caitlin Finney, Carolyn S Dewa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-91
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Traumatic Stress
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Meta-Analysis
Wounds and Injuries
Therapeutics
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Compassion Fatigue
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Social Support
Hearing
Publications
Demography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatic Stress in Therapeutic Work With Trauma Victims. / Hensel, Jennifer M.; Ruiz, Carlos; Finney, Caitlin; Dewa, Carolyn S.

In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 28, No. 2, 01.04.2015, p. 83-91.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hensel, Jennifer M. ; Ruiz, Carlos ; Finney, Caitlin ; Dewa, Carolyn S. / Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatic Stress in Therapeutic Work With Trauma Victims. In: Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2015 ; Vol. 28, No. 2. pp. 83-91.
@article{08f310d20bad431fb677f83e2d8a6394,
title = "Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatic Stress in Therapeutic Work With Trauma Victims",
abstract = "Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright",
author = "Hensel, {Jennifer M.} and Carlos Ruiz and Caitlin Finney and Dewa, {Carolyn S}",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/jts.21998",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "83--91",
journal = "Journal of Traumatic Stress",
issn = "0894-9867",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatic Stress in Therapeutic Work With Trauma Victims

AU - Hensel, Jennifer M.

AU - Ruiz, Carlos

AU - Finney, Caitlin

AU - Dewa, Carolyn S

PY - 2015/4/1

Y1 - 2015/4/1

N2 - Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright

AB - Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84927145560&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84927145560&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/jts.21998

DO - 10.1002/jts.21998

M3 - Article

C2 - 25864503

AN - SCOPUS:84927145560

VL - 28

SP - 83

EP - 91

JO - Journal of Traumatic Stress

JF - Journal of Traumatic Stress

SN - 0894-9867

IS - 2

ER -