Meiosis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Meiosis is the specialized type of cell division by which sexual organisms produce gametes. In most organisms, meiosis produces haploid gametes from diploid precursor cells. Meiosis halves the chromosome number via two successive rounds of chromosome segregation that follow a single round of chromosome replication. The first round of meiotic chromosome segregation is unique in that the sister chromatids remain associated while parental homologs (pairs of sisters) are segregated. As prerequisites for their segregation, homologs become intimately associated and connected by structures called chiasmata. Homolog pairing and formation of chiasmata are both mediated by the DNA repair process called homologous recombination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Biological Chemistry
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages17-23
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780123786319
ISBN (Print)9780123786302
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2013

Keywords

  • Aneuploid
  • Chromosome
  • Cohesin
  • Crossing-over
  • Gamete
  • Gene conversion
  • Holliday junction
  • Homolog
  • Homologous recombination
  • Meiosis
  • Oocyte
  • Sister chromatid
  • Spermatocyte
  • Synaptonemal complex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Hunter, N. (2013). Meiosis. In Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry: Second Edition (pp. 17-23). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378630-2.00474-6