Megavolt bremsstrahlung measurements from linear induction accelerators demonstrate possible use as a FLASH radiotherapy source to reduce acute toxicity

Stephen E. Sampayan, Kristin C. Sampayan, George J. Caporaso, Yu Jiuan Chen, Steve Falabella, Steven A. Hawkins, Jason Hearn, James A. Watson, Jan Mark Zentler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Recent studies indicate better efficacy and healthy tissue sparing with high dose-rate FLASH radiotherapy (FLASH-RT) cancer treatment. This technique delivers a prompt high radiation dose rather than fractional doses over time. While some suggest thresholds of > 40 Gy s−1 with a maximal effect at > 100 Gy s−1, accumulated evidence shows that instantaneous dose-rate and irradiation time are critical. Mechanisms are still debated, but toxicity is minimized while inducing apoptosis in malignant tissue. Delivery technologies to date show that a capability gap exists with clinic scale, broad area, deep penetrating, high dose rate systems. Based on these trends, if FLASH-RT is adopted, it may become a dominant approach except in the least technologically advanced countries. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) developed for high instantaneous and high average dose-rate, species independent charged particle acceleration, has yet to be considered for this application. We review the status of LIA technology, explore the physics of bremsstrahlung-converter-target interactions and our work on stabilizing the electron beam. While the gradient of the LIA is low, we present our preliminary work to improve the gradient by an order of magnitude, presenting a point design for a multibeam FLASH-RT system using a single accelerator for application to conformal FLASH-RT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17104
JournalScientific reports
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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