Kraepelin, in his early descriptions of schizophrenia (SZ), characterized the illness as having “an orchestra without a conductor.” Kraepelin further speculated that this “conductor” was situated in the frontal lobes. Findings from multiple studies over the following decades have clearly implicated pathology of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as playing a central role in the pathophysiology of SZ, particularly with regard to key cognitive features such as deficits in working memory and cognitive control. Following an overview of the cognitive mechanisms associated with DLPFC function and how they are altered in SZ, we review evidence from an array of neuroscientific approaches addressing how these cognitive impairments may reflect the underlying pathophysiology of the illness. Specifically, we present evidence suggesting that alterations of the DLPFC in SZ are evident across a range of spatial and temporal resolutions: from its cellular and molecular architecture, to its gross structural and functional integrity, and from millisecond to longer timescales. We then present an integrative model based upon how microscale changes in neuronal signaling in the DLPFC can influence synchronized patterns of neural activity to produce macrocircuit-level alterations in DLPFC activation that ultimately influence cognition and behavior. We conclude with a discussion of initial efforts aimed at targeting DLPFC function in SZ, the clinical implications of those efforts, and potential avenues for future development.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health