Mechanisms of organophosphate neurotoxicity

Yi Hua Tsai, Pamela J. Lein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The canonical mechanism of organophosphate (OP) neurotoxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mechanisms in addition to or other than AChE inhibition contribute to the neurotoxic effects associated with acute and chronic OP exposures. Characterizing the role(s) of AChE inhibition versus noncholinergic mechanisms in OP neurotoxicity remains an active area of research with significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Here, we review recently published studies that provide mechanistic insights regarding (1) OP-induced status epilepticus, (2) long-term neurologic consequences of acute OP exposures, and (3) neurotoxic effects associated with repeated low-level OP exposures. Key data gaps and challenges are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-60
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
Volume26
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Calcium homeostasis
  • Cannabinoid signaling
  • Glutamatergic signaling
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Synaptotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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