Mechanisms of disease: Defensins in gastrointestinal diseases

Jan Wehkamp, Klaus Fellermann, Klaus R. Herrlinger, Charles L Bevins, Eduard F. Stange

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

122 Scopus citations

Abstract

Defensins are endogenous antibiotics with microbicidal activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. In the gastrointestinal tract, defensins help regulate the composition and number of colonizing microbes, and protect the host from food-borne and water-borne pathogens. In health, the normal host relationship with the commensal luminal microbiota is beneficial, but the same commensal bacteria could have a pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. A disturbance in antimicrobial defense, as provided by Paneth cells of the small intestine, seems to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of ileal Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract. The disruption of the critical balance between antimicrobial peptides and luminal bacteria might also explain other gastrointestinal infections and diseases. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation and biology of defensins could open up new therapeutic avenues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-415
Number of pages10
JournalNature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume2
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2005

Keywords

  • Crohn's disease
  • Defensins
  • Gastrointestinal infection
  • Gastrointestinal inflammation
  • Intestinal bacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology

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