Measurement and prognosis of frail patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Zhe Li, Emily Dawson, Jessica Moodie, Janet Martin, Rodrigo Bagur, Davy Cheng, Bob Kiaii, Adam Hashi, Ran Bi, Michelle Yeschin, Ava John-Baptiste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives Our objectives were to review the literature to identify frailty instruments in use for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) recipients and synthesise prognostic data from these studies, in order to inform clinical management of frail patients undergoing TAVI. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature published in 2006 or later. We included studies of patients with aortic stenosis, diagnosed as frail, who underwent a TAVI procedure that reported mortality or clinical outcomes. We categorised the frailty instruments and reported on the prevalence of frailty in each study. We summarised the frequency of clinical outcomes and pooled outcomes from multiple studies. We explored heterogeneity and performed subgroup analysis, where possible. We also used Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess the overall certainty of the estimates. Results Of 49 included studies, 21 used single-dimension measures to assess frailty, 3 used administrative data-based measures, and 25 used multidimensional measures. Prevalence of frailty ranged from 5.67% to 90.07%. Albumin was the most commonly used single-dimension frailty measure and the Fried or modified Fried phenotype were the most commonly used multidimensional measures. Meta-analyses of studies that used either the Fried or modified Fried phenotype showed a 30-day mortality of 7.86% (95% CI 5.20% to 11.70%) and a 1-year mortality of 26.91% (95% CI 21.50% to 33.11%). The GRADE system suggests very low certainty of the respective estimates. Conclusions Frailty instruments varied across studies, leading to a wide range of frailty prevalence estimates for TAVI recipients and substantial heterogeneity. The results provide clinicians, patients and healthcare administrators, with potentially useful information on the prognosis of frail patients undergoing TAVI. This review highlights the need for standardisation of frailty measurement to promote consistency. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018090597.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere040459
JournalBMJ open
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 4 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiac surgery
  • epidemiology
  • valvular heart disease
  • vascular surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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