Measurement adequacy of the CES-D among a sample of older African-Americans

Kristie Long Foley, Peter S. Reed, Elizabeth J. Mutran, Robert F. DeVellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations


This manuscript examines the measurement adequacy of the CES-D when applied in older African-Americans (n=227). The response distribution was skewed towards less symptomatology on all items, and the internal consistency of the CES-D was acceptable (α=0.86). An exploratory factor analysis revealed four underlying factors of depressive symptomatology: (1) depressive/somatic; (2) positive; (3) interpersonal; and (4) social well-being. The primary factor was a combination of depression and somatic symptoms, a commonly reported uni-dimensional factor among ethnic groups. Additionally, a fourth factor emerged that has not previously been identified, labeled 'social well-being'. This factor consisted of three items that may tap into the social interactions of the elderly: appetite, hopeful, and talk. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence on the unique measurement properties of the CES-D across diverse populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-69
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 31 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Depression
  • Ethnicity
  • Factor analysis
  • Mental health
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Psychology(all)


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