Mean glandular dose coefficients (D<inf>g</inf>N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

Anita Nosratieh, Andrew Hernandez, Sam Z. Shen, Martin J. Yaffe, J Anthony Seibert, John M Boone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D<inf>g</inf>N for a range of anodefilter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D<inf>g</inf>N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D<inf>g</inf>N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D<inf>g</inf>N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D<inf>g</inf>N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D<inf>g</inf>N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Over 200 pages of D<inf>g</inf>N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7179-7190
Number of pages12
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 21 2015


  • digital breast tomosynthesis
  • mammography
  • normalized glandular dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Mean glandular dose coefficients (D<inf>g</inf>N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this