Mathematical models for fatigue minimization during functional electrical stimulation

Jun Ding, Anthony S. Wexler, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


We previously reported the development of a force- and fatigue-model system that predicted accurately forces during repetitive fatiguing activation of human skeletal muscles using brief duration (six-pulse) stimulation trains. The model system was tested in the present study using force responses produced by longer duration stimulation trains, containing up to 50 pulses. Our results showed that our model successfully predicted the peak forces produced when the muscle was repetitively activated with stimulation trains of frequencies ranging from 20 to 40 Hz, train durations ranging from 0.5 to 1 s, and varied pulse patterns. The predicted peak forces throughout each protocol matched the experimental peak forces with r2 values above 0.9 and predicted successfully the forces at the end of each protocol with <15% error for all protocols tested. The success of our model system further supports its potential use for the design of optimal stimulation patterns for individual users during functional electrical stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-588
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2003


  • Doublets
  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Predictive model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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