OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between maternal pregnancy hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated these associations in a longitudinal study of 421 mother-daughter pairs at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Maternal pregnancy glucose values were obtained from maternal medical records. Outcomes included three measures of girls' adiposity, measured annually: 1) ≥85th age-specific percentile for BMI; 2 ) percent body fat (%BF); and 3) waist-to-height ratio (WHR). RESULTS: Adjusting for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, pregravid BMI, girl 's age, and girl 's age at onset of puberty, having a mother with GDM increased a girl's risk of having a BMI ≥85th percentile or having %BF or WHR in the highest quartile (Q4), compared with those in the lowest quintile of blood glucose (odds ratio [OR] 3.56 [95% CI 1.28-9.92]; OR 3.13 [95% CI 1.08-9.09]; and OR 2.80 [95% CI 1.00-7.84], respectively). There was a signi fi cant interaction between the presence of GDM and pregravid BMI; girls whose mothers had both risk factors had the highest odds of having a BMI ≥85th percentile (OR 5.56 [95%CI 1.70-18.2]; Q4%BF, OR 6.04 [95%CI 1.76- 20.7]; and Q4 WHR, OR 3.60 [95%CI 1.35- 9.58]). Similar, although weaker, associations were found in the association between hyperglycemia and offspring adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Girls who were exposed to maternal GDMor hyperglycemia in utero are at higher risk of childhood adiposity; risk increases if the mother is overweight or obese. Screening and intervention for this high-risk group is warranted to slow the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its sequelae.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing