Maternal and neonatal outcomes of assaults during pregnancy

Dina El Kady, William M. Gilbert, Guibo Xing, Lloyd H Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To assess perinatal outcomes of women hospitalized for assault during pregnancy as a function of timing of delivery. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study analyzing maternal discharge records linked to birth/death certificates in California from 1991 to 1999 was performed. International Classifications of Disease, Ninth Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify injury types and outcomes. External causation codes identified assaults as the mechanism of the injuries. Injury Severity Scores were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis of outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 2,070 women were hospitalized during pregnancy after sustaining an assault. Assaulted women were younger, multiparous, and with delayed prenatal care compared with unassaulted controls. Women delivering at the assault hospitalization had high rates of prematurity: 24%, OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.8-3.3), maternal death: 0.71%, OR 19 (95% CI 2.7-144.7), fetal death: 9.3%, OR 8 (95% CI 4.6-14.3), uterine rupture: 0.71%, OR 46 (95% CI 6.5-337.8), and other adverse outcomes compared with unassaulted women. Women discharged after an assault, delivering at a subsequent hospitalization, had increased risks of abruption: 2%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.5), hemorrhage: 3.2%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.5), prematurity: 15%, OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.5), and low birth weight: 13.4%, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) at delivery. CONCLUSION: Women sustaining an assault during pregnancy experience both immediate (uterine rupture, increased fetal and maternal mortality) and long-term sequelae (prematurity and low birth weight infants), which have significant negative effects on pregnancy outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-363
Number of pages7
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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