Maternal and developmental toxicity of manganese in the mouse

Domenec J. Sánchez, JoséL Domingo, Juan M. Llobet, Carl L Keen

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58 Scopus citations


Manganese (II) chloride tetrahydrate was investigated in Swiss mice for maternal and developmental toxicity after subcutaneous (s.c.) exposure to doses of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg per day from gestation day 6 through 15. Females were sacrificed on gestation day 18, and fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. Maternal toxicity included significant reductions in weight gain and food consumption at 8 and 16 mg/kg/day, as well as several treatment-related deaths in the high dose-group. There were no treatment-related effects on the number of total implants, early resorptions, dead fetuses or sex ratio, whereas a significant increase in the number of late resorptions was found in the 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day groups. Fetotoxicity, consisting primarily of reduced fetal body weight and an increased incidence of morphological defects was also observed at 8 and 16 mg/kg/day. There were no differences between control and manganese-treated groups in the incidence of individual or total malformations. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity of MnCl2· 4H20 in mice was 4 mg/kg/day, while the NOAEL for embryo/fetal toxicity was 2 mg/kg/day.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-52
Number of pages8
JournalToxicology Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1993


  • Embryolethality
  • Fetotoxicity
  • Manganese (II) chloride
  • Maternal Toxicity
  • Mice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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