Managing Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

Lauren B. Gerlach, Helen C. Kales

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are universally experienced by people with dementia throughout the course of the illness and cause a significant negative impact on quality of life for patients and caregivers. Nonpharmacologic treatments have been recommended as first-line treatment of BPSD by multiple professional organizations and should target patients with dementia factors, caregiver factors, and environmental factors. Psychotropic medications are often prescribed off-label without significant evidence to support their use. The Describe, Investigate, Create, Evaluate approach can provide a structured method to investigate and treat BPSD with flexibility to use in multiple treatment settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-139
Number of pages13
JournalPsychiatric Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia
  • Caregivers
  • Dementia
  • Nonpharmacologic treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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